Nintendo

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Nintendo Co., Ltd. (Japanek: 任天堂 株式会社 Nintendo Kabushiki gaisha) yw cowethas electronek usy owth arbenegy in gwariow video. Fùndyes a veu 23 Gwynngala 1889 in Kyoto, Japan gans Fusajiro Yamauchi. Meur yw hanow Nintendo dre rêson a’y gonsolennow hedhon avell an Game Boy ha'n Nintendo DS, a’y gonsolennow tre kepar ha'n Nintendo Entertainment System ha'n Wii, kefrÿs ha lies steus gwary ow comprehendya Mario, The Legend of Zelda ha Pokémon.

Istory[golegi | pennfenten]

Dalathfos le-aswonys[golegi | pennfenten]

Bys penn 74 bledhen wosa hy fùndyans 23 Gwynngala 1889, ny wrug Nintendo ascor marnas cartennow gwary. I’n dalathfos, lêdys gans Fusajiro Yamauchi, Nintendo a wrug hanafuda (花札 ‘cartennow flour’) yn unnyk[1][2][3]. Y fedha cartennow Nintendo gwrÿs dre dhorn a rusk morbren i’n dedhyow avarr, hag afinusterow ink a vedha paintyes warnodhans[4]. Y a veu an cartennow moyha kerys gans pobel Kyoto, ha Yamauchi a wrug degemeres lowr a gosmers a’n yakuza (mafya Japan), a wre devnyth a hanafuda dhe hapwary ha dallath pùb gwary gans packet a gartennow nowyth-flàm[4]. Yamauchi a wrug kemeres arvedhesygyon nowyth ha desky dhedhans may halla Nintendo contentya demond an yakuza. 1907, ev a voghhas an gowethas arta dhe vos an kensa cowethas in Japan dhe ascor cartennow gwary a sort an west. Adro dhe’n eur-na, Yamauchi a wrug bargennya may fe cartennow Nintendo gwerthys in shoppys backa oll adro dhe’n nacyon[4].

Nyns esa dhe Fusajiro Yamauchi mab vÿth, ha herwyth laha Japan, ny ylly ev istyn y gowethas dh’y vyrgh[4]. Rag sensy Nintendo i’n teylu, y feu res dhe Yamauchi gortos erna wrella onen a’y vyrhas demedhy. Y vyrgh, Tei, a wrug demedhy gans Sekiryo Kaneda, neb a gemeras hanow teylu Tei, dell o an ûsadow in Japan mars esa gour ow kemeres cowethas teylu y wreg[4]. Sekiryo Yamauchi a veu presydent Nintendo 1929, ha’n gowethas a gartennow a wrug soweny ganso lêdys[4]. Ev a vyldyas sodhvaow nowyth, ha scoren lesrannans gelwys Marufuku (丸福, 'fortun tien' pò 'kelgh a fortun'), dhodho lies sort nowyth a garten gwary arnowyth[4]. Ny gafas Tei ha Sekiryo mab vÿth. Aga myrgh, Kimi, a wrug demedhy gans Shikanojo Inaba[4]. Ev a gemeras hanow teylu Kimi, saw ny wrug ev bythqweth perhenna Nintendo[4], drefen y whrug ev gasa an teylu pàn o y vab pymp bloodh[5]. Hiroshi, mab Kimi ha Shikanojo, a veu an kensa er gorow a veu genys in Nintendo[4].

Ny ylly Kimi hy honen oll kemeres with a Hiroshi, ytho ev êth dh’y gerens wynn[4]. Tei a wrug dhe Hiroshi remainya i’n scol in le jùnya dhe’n lu dell o whans dhodho[4][5]. Hiroshi a worthebas dhe sevureth y gerens wynn dre gowntnans rebel hag ev a wrug dysqwedhyans a’y rychys[4][5].

Pàn wrug Hiroshi jùnya dhe scol laha Penscol Waseda in Tokyo, nyns o va porposys dhe woverna an gowethas i’n termyn ogas esa ow tos[4]. Nena, Sekiryo a gafas strocas[4]. Sekiryo a wrug omdava dh’y vab wynn, ha hemma a bromyssyas y whre va degemeres soodh presydent Nintendo, mara qwrussa Sekiryo gordhyllo cosyn cotha Hiroshi; ny garsa Hiroshi dh’y soodh bos dyspûtys[4]. Hiroshi a wre gordhyllo pùb menystror o kelmys dhe is hengovek an lêdyoryon kyns, drefen y dhe vos godrosow[5][4]. Hiroshi a veu presydent 1949[4].

Dres an bledhynnyow a wrug sewya, Hiroshi Yamauchi a veu abyl dhe ledanhe marhas an gowethas dre wul cartennow gwary a’n west ha, yn holerha, dre bryntya fygùrs a Disney wàr gil hy hartennow[2][6]. Ny wrug Nintendo cessya dhe gostenna tevysogyon, bytegyns, dell yllyr gweles in y gartennow noth[1].

I’n bledhynnyow 1960, Nintendo a dhalathas gweytha cowethas taxi, Daiya (ダイヤ 'Adamant') hy hanow[1][7], kefrÿs ha love hotel ha rosweyth pellwolok. Hy a wrug boos desempys, ha scubellow sùgna gans sethor, inwedh[4][8]. Ny wrug onen vÿth a’n aventuryansow-ma soweny[3][9].

Gwariow[golegi | pennfenten]

An bledhynnyow 1970[golegi | pennfenten]

Wosa dysplegya gwariellow a dhros moy a spêda (rag ensampel an Ultra Hand, an Ultra Machine ha’n Love Tester)[10][11], kensa gwary video gwir Nintendo, EVR Race y hanow, a dheuth 1975[12]. Nena an gowethas a launchyas an Color TV-Game 6 i’n vledhen 1977 dre gesoberyans gans Mitsubishi Electric. Hemma yw consolen dre unnborpos (na yll bos ûsys marnas rag an gwariow a veu hy gwrÿs ragthans). Wosa unn seythen yn unnyk, Nintendo a wrug dyllo versyon gwellhÿs kerra, an Color TV-Game 15[13]. TV-Game nowyth a vedha dyllys pùb bledhen bys penn 1980.

An bledhynnyow 1980[golegi | pennfenten]

Y trehedhas an varhas 1980 an gwariow hedhon gelwys Game & Watch. Pùb Game & Watch yw consolen vian, dhedhy unn gwary. An grows lewya, usy wàr ogasty oll sethoryon gwary video hedhyw, a veu desmygys dhe wul dhe’n Game & Watch kemeres le a spâss[14].

An jyn gwary Donkey Kong, dyllys 1981, a veu kensa spêda veur vÿs-efan Nintendo[15]. Ev o onen a’n kensa gwariow a wrug devnyth a levelyow liesek, ha bysy a veu an dyversyta-ma avell elven y gerensa gans an bobel[16].

Wosa Nintendo dhe dhelyvra an Famcom, pò Family Computer, mis Gortheren 1983, y feu dhe’n gwerthow dallath lent, saw dre rêson a argemynnow hag a dhyllans Super Mario Bros.[17] mis Gwynngala, an gonsolen 8-byt-ma a veu meurgerys yn scon. Semlant an jyn a veu desînys arta dhe vos gwerthys in Ameryca North, mayth esa dywysyans gwariow video whath ow sawya wosa kildro 1983[16], pàn lavaras jornalystyon dell o “marow” gwariow video tre ena. Hanow nowyth a veu rÿs dhe’n system inwedh: NES (Nintendo Entertainment System). Yma arbenegoryon a’n dywysyans owth agria y whrug NES dasserhy jynys gwariow video in Ameryca[16].

1989, Game Boy a dheuth[18]. Hemma a’n jeves prow Game & Watch, awos ev dhe vos hedhon, saw possybyl yw inwedh keworra gwariow dhodho ha’ga remuvya dhyworto, kepar ha NES. Nintendo a gafas an gwir dhe wertha an gwary Tetris gans aga Game Boy, ha’ga dew a veu meurgerys warbarth[19].

An bledhynnyow 1990[golegi | pennfenten]

Super Famicom a veu dyllys mis Du 1990 in Japan. Dres rann vrâssa an bÿs, an gonsolen dre 16-byt-ma yw gelwys SNES (Super Nintendo Entertainment System). Solabrÿs dyllys o Mega Drive Sega – rag henna, res o dhe Nintendo gul neppyth dhe overcùmya power an kesstrîvyor 16-byt, meur y vern – ha’n dhyw gonsolen a veu rann a gesstrif crev inter dyw gowethas a Japan[20]. SNES a wrug mentêna stauns crev Nintendo i’n varhas a gonsolennow tre bys pàn dhyllas Sony an PlayStation[16].

Consolen realeth furvwir, Virtual Boy hy hanow, a dhrehedhas 1995. Kynth esa Virtual Boy owth offra effethyow 3D ha power 32 byt, ny wrug Nintendo gwertha marnas 350,000 anodhans – le ages an 3 mylyon a werthow gwetyes – ha’n gonsolen a veu astellys yn cosel[21]. Cablys a veu an Virtual Boy rag na ylly dysplêtya gwariow marnas in rudh wàr an gilva dhu. Nintendo a laveras dell veu unn colour ûsys yn unnyk may fe an gonsolen afordyadow, mès pùb gwary Virtual Boy a gomprehendyas gwarnyans bos possybyl cafos drog penn der y wary termyn hir dre rêson a’n dewys-ma. Croffolow erel a veu bos an gwariow drog ha’n gonsolen cales dhe ûsya[21]. Ny veu an Virtual Boy bythqweth dyllys in mes a Japan hag Ameryca North.

Nintendo a wrug dyllo an Nintendo 64 1996 in Japan hag Ameryca North, ha 1997 in Ewrop hag Australya. Hemma a veu dylâtys dhyworth gwâv 1995, drefen nag o gwrÿs lowr a galesweyth, ha nag o towlenoryon whath ûsys gans gul medhelweyth rag an N64, spessly in try dymensyon[22]. 32.93 mylyon a unsesow a veu prenys, yw only tressa rann a’n nyver a PlayStations a wrug Sony gwertha[23]. Yma an rêsons profyes rag an dyffrans-ma ow comprehendya dell esa Nintendo ow qwertha aga gwariow wàr gartryjennow, ha Sony ow cul devnyth a CD-ROMs. Wàr eyl tu, cartryjennow a ylly carga aga restrynnow yn uskyssa meur; wàr y gela, CDs o moy iselbrîs, ha rag an gonsûmyoryon ha rag an dowlenoryon[24]. Wortyweth, consûmyoryon a wrug dêwys ascorras Sony ha Nintendo a dyllas dre goll kevrannow. Sethor an N64 a wrug kesunya crows lewya ha gwelen analog rag an kensa prÿs[25].

1997 yw an vledhen may feu dyllys Game Boy Pocket ha New-Style Super NES kefrÿs. Game Boy Pocket yw Game Boy le ha scaffa ages an Game Boy gwredhek, nag yw res dhodho marnas a dhew vatry AAA[26]. New-Style Super NES yw versyon le a’n SNES, iselha y brîs rag nebes gweythresow a’n gonsolen voyha dhe fyllel. 1998, Nintendo a dhyllas Game Boy Color, Game Boy abyl dhe dhysplegya colourys. Homma yw an gonsolen dhewetha a dhyllas Nintendo an vilvledhen-na.

An bledhynnyow 2000[golegi | pennfenten]

Game Boy Advance yw sort a Game Boy dyllys 2001, brâssa ha clerra y scrin ages an modellys a dheuth kyns agesso. Yma dhodho gallos video SNES ha myns Game Boy Pocket[27]. Ny veu Game Boy vÿth mar veurgerys inter towlenoryon gwary kyns[27]. Bytegyns, an bobel a wrug y gably rag nag yw y scrin golowys. An problem-ma a veu assoylyes mis Whevrel 2003 pàn veu dyllys an Game Boy Advance SP: tu arâg scrin an gonsolen-ma yw golowys, ha’y batrys yw dascargadow.

Devynnow[golegi | pennfenten]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 https://kotaku.com/5784314/the-nintendo-theyve-tried-to-forget-gambling-gangsters-and-love-hotels
  2. 2.0 2.1 https://www.nintendo.co.jp/corporate/en/history/index.html
  3. 3.0 3.1 https://web.archive.org/web/20141218125805/http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2013-09/20/hiroshi-yamauchi
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17 4.18 Firestone, Mary. Nintendo: The Company and Its Founders. (Edina, MN: ABDO Publishing Company, 2011), pp. 16-21
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 http://uk.ign.com/articles/2012/05/25/hiroshi-yamauchi-nintendos-legendary-president
  6. https://www.wired.com/2010/09/0923nintendo-founded/
  7. https://gadgets.ndtv.com/games/features/as-nintendo-turns-125-6-things-you-may-not-know-about-this-gaming-giant-596606
  8. https://kotaku.com/5933163/nintendo-once-made-a-vacuum-cleaner
  9. https://gizmodo.com/the-surprisingly-long-history-of-nintendo-1354286257
  10. http://www.businessinsider.com/before-mario-nintendos-playing-cards-toys-and-love-hotels-2011-8?IR=T
  11. http://archive.wikiwix.com/cache/?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.p-nintendo.com%2Fhistoire%2FH-3.html
  12. https://kotaku.com/nintendos-hardware-wizard-will-get-lifetime-achievement-1822572036
  13. http://www.computinghistory.org.uk/det/42202/Color-TV-Game-15/
  14. http://www.nintendolife.com/news/2010/02/feature_the_history_of_the_nintendo_game_and_watch
  15. Mark J. P. Wolf, Encyclopedia of Video Games: The Culture, Technology, and Art of Gaming (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, LLC, 2021).
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 Dominic Arsenault, “System Profile: The Nintendo Entertainment System (NES),” in The Video Game Explosion: A History From Pong to PlayStation and Beyond, 2nd ed. (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood, 2008), pp. 109-114.
  17. http://grantland.com/features/the-rise-of-nintendo-video-games-history/
  18. https://web.archive.org/web/20141212112812/http://www.allgame.com/platform.php?id=20
  19. https://www.theguardian.com/culture/2014/jun/02/how-we-made-tetris
  20. https://venturebeat.com/2015/11/28/the-art-and-legacy-of-the-90s-console-war/
  21. 21.0 21.1 http://www.digitalspy.com/gaming/retro-gaming/feature/a562419/virtual-boy-retrospective-nintendos-disastrous-foray-into-vr/
  22. https://mic.com/articles/180718/nintendo-64-21st-anniversary-celebrating-nintendos-5th-generation-console#.28RxZf21y
  23. https://venturebeat.com/2014/08/20/heres-who-won-each-console-war/
  24. Leonard Herman, “A New Generation of Home Video Game Systems,” in The Video Game Explosion: A History From Pong to PlayStation and Beyond, 2nd ed. (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood, 2008), pp. 115-121.
  25. http://uk.ign.com/articles/2011/09/24/nintendo-64-launching-a-legacy
  26. http://www.ibtimes.com/nintendo-game-boy-25th-anniversary-history-handheld-console-shaped-generation-gamers-1574211
  27. 27.0 27.1 http://uk.ign.com/articles/2009/07/27/ign-presents-the-history-of-game-boy?page=6